Moods

Hortative mood
This mood expresses a wish or appeal. For example:

Ha ba kene hle. (Let them come inside, please.)
Ha ba nyalane. (Let them get married.)
Mo tshwarele hle. (Please forgive him/her.)
Ha re mo thuseng. (Let us help him/her.)


Imperative mood 
This mood expresses an instruction, command or a politely strong request. Like:

Thola! (Keep quiet!)
Ema! (Stand up!)
Dula! (Sit down!)
Kwalang monyako! (Close the door!) 


Indicative mood 
This is a mood that indicates. It is a simple statement of a fact or which asks a question for a factual answer. Here are a few examples:

Monna o a tsamaya. (The man is walking.)
Pula e a na. (It is raining.)
Ho a tjhesa. (It is hot.)
Ho a bata. (It is cold.) 


Participial mood 
This mood expresses actions that happen simultaneously. For example:

Monna o tsuba a tsamaya. (He walks while smoking.)
Ba bina ba tlola. (They sing while jumping.)
O lla a tseha. (He/she cries while laughing.)
Ba fihlile a bapala. (They found him/her playing.) 


Potential mood 
This mood express the ability or potential that is there. In this mood the word ka, that can be translated as "can", is used. For example:

Ngaka e ka phekola mokudi. (The docter can treat the patient.)
Ngwanana o ka bala koranta. (The girl can read the newspaper.)
A ka atleha. (He/she can succeed.)
Ba ka fihla. (They can arrive.) 


Subjunctive mood 
This mood is used in a subdued or subordinate sense. It is used to express doubt, uncertainty or impossibility. For example:

Re bone le rona. (We may also see.)
Ba je le bona. (They too may eat.)
Ba bue? (May they speak.)
Ba utlwe. (Let them hear.) 


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J. Olivier (2009)